Timothy Weeks has met with the prime minister after spending more than three years as a Taliban hostage.
Mr Weeks sat down with Scott Morrison at Parliament House in Canberra on Wednesday.
Deputy Prime Minister Michael McCormack and Foreign Minister Marise Payne were also at the meeting.
He later received a standing ovation while attending question time.
"Mr Weeks' story is one of the incredible resilience of an Australian," the prime minister told parliament.
"This is the nature of Australians. We are an incredibly resilient people."
Mr Morrison said the academic's detention in Afghanistan was one of the most incredible ordeals an Australian could go through.
Mr Weeks returned to Australia late last week after being released as part of a prisoner exchange deal between the Taliban and the Afghan government, negotiated by American officials.
He and an American colleague had been detained since 2016 after being abducted at gunpoint outside the American University in Kabul, where they worked as teachers.
The prisoner swap deal saw the release of three high-ranking Taliban prisoners.
Mr Weeks is from the regional NSW town of Wagga Wagga.